Infants and small children are especially susceptible to dehydration because of their smaller body weight and high turnover of water and electrolytes due to a higher metabolic rate. They are also more likely to experience diarrhoea than other age groups, which can lead to dehydration if fluids are not replenished. Other causes of dehydration in kids include vomiting and fever. Because infants and small children may be unable to communicate the severity of their symptoms, it is important to watch out for the following signs and symptoms and respond quickly if they develop:
- Sleepiness or tiredness
- Dry mouth
- Few or no tears when crying
- Decreased urine output – eight hours or more without urination for older children and teens and for infants, no wet nappies for three hours.1 Dark yellow or amber coloured urine may also signal dehydration in kids.
- Sunken fontanelle (the soft spot on a baby’s head where the bones are yet to close)
To help manage dehydration in kids, it is important to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. Unless a doctor advices otherwise, an oral rehydration formula should be given to a child with vomiting, diarrhoea or fever. These solutions contain water, glucose and electrolytes in specific proportions to assist rapid rehydration and recovery.
It is a good idea to begin giving your child fluids from the beginning of the illness rather than waiting until the situation becomes more urgent.
Always read the label. Follow the directions for use. If symptoms persist, talk to your health professional. Vitamin supplements should not replace a balanced diet
Warning: Seek medical advice if diarrhoea or vomiting persists for longer than:
- 6 hours in babies less than 6 months old
- 12 hours in children in children under 3 years
- 24 hours in children 3‐6 years
- 48 hours in children and adults over 6
For more information, please visit https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/dehydration.html